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Fuel efficiency

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In 2018, the average fuel consumption of new passenger cars sold in China was about 5.8 liters per 100 kilometers (L / 100 km) - that's about 40.5 miles per gallon. This was an improvement of around 4.3% over the 2017 average. [5]

For at least the past decade, the average fuel efficiency of new cars sold in China has been better than the United States and Australia, but worse than Europe and Japan. [6]

Guidelines

The Chinese government requires that all new passenger cars meet fuel efficiency standards. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issues these standards.

According to the State Council, the purpose of China's fuel efficiency standards is to reduce the contradictions between fuel supply and demand, reduce emissions, improve the atmosphere, and promote the automotive industry and technological advancement. [7] MIIT identifies CO. specifictwoEmission reduction as one of the expected social benefits of the standards. MIIT estimates China's fuel efficiency standards for 2020 CO. will reducetwo-Emissions by 113 million tons compared to 2015 standards. [8]

The Chinese government's fuel efficiency standards consist of two main parts. First, every vehicle must meet specific fuel efficiency standards based on its weight. The fleet is divided into 16 categories according to weight. These standards were first published in 2005 and have been tightened every few years since then. [9]

In addition, every vehicle manufacturer must meet the limits for average fuel consumption (Corporate Average Fuel Consumption, CAFC). These limit values ​​apply annually to the entire new vehicle fleet of each manufacturer. The standard for 2016 was 6.7 l / 100 km. The norm for 2020 is 5 L / 100 km. [10]

Various flexibility schemes are offered to manufacturers to meet the CAFC standards.

  • First, manufacturers can use NEV credits to meet the standards. These credits allow manufacturers to count electric vehicles (which consume 0 L / 100 km) up to five times when determining the fleet-wide average. NEV credits can be acquired (i) through the manufacture of electric vehicles or (ii) acquired from electric vehicle manufacturers.
  • Second, manufacturers can average the power over several years and use the overpower in one year to make up for the underpower in other years. [elf]

Enforcement of fuel efficiency standards is inconsistent, with some experts saying manufacturers face few penalties for non-compliance. In 2018, nearly 50 out of 113 domestic automakers exceeded their CAFC limits, according to MIIT. According to the rules of the MIIT, these manufacturers must meet the requirements by applying NEV credits or using other flexibility tools. [12]

Still, an analysis found that China's domestic vehicle industry overall met government fuel efficiency standards in 2016. According to the Innovation Center for Energy and Transportation, a non-governmental organization, the fuel efficiency of China's domestic new vehicle fleet was 6.56 L / 100 km in 2016, which is the national standard of 6.7 L / 100 km. (When the EV credits were removed, the fuel efficiency was 6.83 L / 100 km.) [13]

The next phase of China's vehicle fuel efficiency program is currently under development. Some stakeholders have expressed concern that an oversupply of NEV credits is affecting the fuel efficiency of China's new vehicle fleet under the existing program and have recommended changes to address this. [14]

Chinese taxes on the manufacture and import of passenger cars vary by size, with larger cars paying more. This promotes fuel efficiency. There is also a 10% tax on super luxury vehicles (priced at over 1.3 million yuan, which is about $ 190,000). According to the Ministry of Finance, this tax is intended to promote rational consumption and energy saving. [fifteen]

References

[5] Average fuel consumption of Chinese cars, China Net Car (July 3, 2019); Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 'Average fuel consumption of Chinese car companies in 2017 (July 2, 2018) (the average fuel consumption for new cars in 2017 was 6.05 liters per 100 km).

[6] IEA, Fuel consumption in the main automobile markets (March 20, 2019) in Figure KF1 and data sets; Zifei Yang and Anup Bandivadekar, 2017 global update of greenhouse gas and fuel consumption standards for light commercial vehicles , International Clean Transport Council (ICCT) (2017)

[7] Council of State, Announcement of the publication of the Automotive Industry Development Plan for Energy Saving and New Energy (2012-2020) (June 28, 2012); See general innovation center for energy and transport, Annual report on the development of the fuel consumption of passenger cars in China 2017 (September 2017).

[8] Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Level 4 Passenger Car Fuel Consumption Standards (January 26, 2015) in Part VII.

[9] Josh Miller et al., China: Light Commercial Vehicles: Fuel Consumption , TransportPolicy.net (accessed August 12, 2019); Innovation Center for Energy and Transport (ICET), Annual report on the development of the fuel consumption of passenger cars in China 2016 China (September 2016) on page 2.

[10] Innovation Center for Energy and Transport, Annual report on the development of the fuel consumption of passenger cars in China 2017 (Dezember 2017); Zheng Yu, China - Energy Saving and New Energy Development Plan for the Automotive Industry (October 28, 2017);

[11] Josh Miller et al., China: light duty: fuel consumption, TransportPolicy.net (accessed August 12, 2019); Innovation Center for Energy and Transport (ICET) , China Passenger Car Fuel Consumption Development Annual Report 2016 (September 2016) on page 6.

[12] Almost 50 car companies failed to comply with fuel consumption in 2018, Beijing daily newspaper (10. April 2019); The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced that the average fuel consumption of 43 automotive companies did not meet the standards in 2016 [43 companies did not meet the standards in 2016] (14. April 2017; Feng Hao, China's EV push violates fuel economy standards, China-Dialog (21. November 2016).

[13] Feng Hao, China's EV push violates fuel economy standards, China-Dialog (21. November 2016); Innovation Center for Energy and Transportation (ICET), China Passenger Vehicle Fuel Consumption Development Annual Report 2017 (Dezember 2017) auf S.29, 34.

new york times co v united states

[14] See Discussion about the management of CAFC-NEV credits (21. June 2019).

[15] Ministry of Finance, Note on the additional taxation of luxury vehicles.

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